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What is Cryptography? Definition of Cryptography, Cryptography Meaning - The Economic Times

2021.03.17 13:45



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Security PREV DEFINITION Cross-site scripting
Read More NEXT DEFINITION Cyber Security
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Definition of 'Cryptography'


Definition: Cryptography is associated with the process of converting ordinary plain text into unintelligible text and vice-versa. It is a method of storing and transmitting data in a particular form so that only those for whom it is intended can read and process it. Cryptography not only protects data from theft or alteration, but can also be used for user authentication.

Description: Earlier cryptography was effectively synonymous with encryption but nowadays cryptography is mainly based on mathematical theory and computer science practice.

Modern cryptography concerns with:

Confidentiality - Information cannot be understood by anyone

Integrity - Information cannot be altered.

Non-repudiation - Sender cannot deny his/her intentions in the transmission of the information at a later stage

Authentication - Sender and receiver can confirm each

Cryptography is used in many applications like banking transactions cards, computer passwords, and e- commerce transactions.

Three types of cryptographic techniques used in general .

1. Symmetric-key cryptography

2. Hash functions.

3. Public-key cryptography

Symmetric-key Cryptography: Both the sender and receiver share a single key. The sender uses this key to encrypt plaintext and send the cipher text to the receiver. On the other side the receiver applies the same key to decrypt the message and recover the plain text.

Public-Key Cryptography: This is the most revolutionary concept in the last 300-400 years. In Public-Key Cryptography two related keys (public and private key) are used. Public key may be freely distributed, while its paired private key, remains a secret. The public key is used for encryption and for decryption private key is used.

Hash Functions: No key is used in this algorithm. A fixed-length hash value is computed as per the plain text that makes it impossible for the contents of the plain text to be recovered. Hash functions are also used by many operating systems to encrypt passwords. PREV DEFINITION Cross-site scripting
Read More NEXT DEFINITION Cyber Security
Read More Related Definitions Secure Sockets Layer (ssl)

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL) is a protocol developed by Netscape for establishing an encrypted link between a web server and a browser. SSL is an industry standard which transmits private data securely over the Internet by encrypting it. It is used by many websites to protect the online transactions of their customers. Description: SSL functions around a cryptographic system which uses three keys t

Cross-site Scripting

Cross-site scripting (XSS) is a type of computer security vulnerability. It is accounted for almost 85% of all website security vulnerabilities. Description: Cross-site scripting (XSS) exploits the 'same-origin-policy' concept of web applications to allow hackers to extract information from the system. How it works: Attackers conduct script injection that runs at the client side and is sometimes

Dns Spoofing

DNS Spoofing is a type of computer attack wherein a user is forced to navigate to a fake website disguised to look like a real one, with the intention of diverting traffic or stealing credentials of the users. Spoofing attacks can go on for a long period of time without being detected and can cause serious security issues. Description: Domain Name Server (DNS) resolves the alphabetical domain nam

Ciphertext

Cipher is an algorithm which is applied to plain text to get ciphertext. It is the unreadable output of an encryption algorithm. The term "cipher" is sometimes used as an alternative term for ciphertext. Ciphertext is not understandable until it has been converted into plain text using a key. Description: Earlier cipher algorithms were performed manually and were entirely different from modern al

Computer Worm

A computer worm is a malicious, self-replicating software program (popularly termed as 'malware') which affects the functions of software and hardware programs. Description: It fits the description of a computer virus in many ways. For example, it can also self-replicate itself and spread across networks. That is why worms are often referred to as viruses also. But computer worms are different fr

Computer Virus

A computer virus is a malicious software program loaded onto a user’s computer without the user’s knowledge and performs malicious actions. Description: The term 'computer virus' was first formally defined by Fred Cohen in 1983. Computer viruses never occur naturally. They are always induced by people. Once created and released, however, their diffusion is not directly under human control. After

Denial-of-service Attack

Denial-Of-Service (DoS) is an attack targeted at depriving legitimate users from online services. It is done by flooding the network or server with useless and invalid authentication requests which eventually brings the whole network down, resulting in no connectivity. As a result of this, users are prevented from using a service. Description: A DoS attack is initiated by sending needless and sup

Memory Corruption

Memory corruption can be described as the vulnerability that may occur in a computer system when its memory is altered without an explicit assignment. The contents of a memory location are modified due to programming errors which enable attackers to execute an arbitrary code. Description: Memory corruption bugs mostly occur in low-level programming languages like C or C++. It is one of the proble

Trojan

Trojan or Trojan horse is the name given to a computer virus. It is a type of computer software that is camouflaged in the form of regular software such as utilities, games and sometimes even antivirus programs. Once it runs on the computer, it causes problems like killing background system processes, deleting hard drive data and corrupting file allocation systems. Description: Mostly Trojans are

Authentication

Authentication is the process of recognizing a user’s identity. It is the mechanism of associating an incoming request with a set of identifying credentials. The credentials provided are compared to those on a file in a database of the authorized user’s information on a local operating system or within an authentication server. Description: The authentication process always runs at the start of t

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